§ 1910.219 Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus
OSHA - 29 CFR 1910 Subpart O:
(a) General requirements.
1910.212 General Requirements for All Machines
1910.213 Woodworking Machinery Requirements
1910.215 Abrasive Wheel Machinery
1910.216 Mills and Calenders in The Rubber and Plastics industries
1910.217 Mechanical Power Presses
1910.218 Forging Machines
(1) This section covers all types and shapes of power-transmission belts, except the following when operating at two hundred and fifty (250) feet per minute or less: (i) Flat belts one (1) inch or less in width, (ii) flat belts two (2) inches or less in width which are free from metal lacings or fasteners, (iii) round belts one-half ( 1/2) inch or less in diameter; and (iv) single strand V-belts, the width of which is thirteen thirty-seconds ( 13/32) inch or less.
(b) Prime-mover guards -
(2) Vertical and inclined belts (paragraphs (e) (3) and (4) of this section) if not more than two and one-half (2 1/2) inches wide and running at a speed of less than one thousand (1,000) feet per minute, and if free from metal lacings or fastenings may be guarded with a nip-point belt and pulley guard.
(3) For the Textile Industry, because of the presence of excessive deposits of lint, which constitute a serious fire hazard, the sides and face sections only of nip-point belt and pulley guards are required, provided the guard shall extend at least six (6) inches beyond the rim of the pulley on the in-running and off-running sides of the belt and at least two (2) inches away from the rim and face of the pulley in all other directions.
(4) This section covers the principal features with which power transmission safeguards shall comply.
(1) Flywheels. Flywheels located so that any part is seven (7) feet or less above floor or platform shall be guarded in accordance with the requirements of this subparagraph:
(c) Shafting -
(i) With an enclosure of sheet, perforated, or expanded metal, or woven wire;
(2) Cranks and connecting rods. Cranks and connecting rods, when exposed to contact, shall be guarded in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (n) of this section, or by a guardrail as described in paragraph (o)(5) of this section.
(ii) With guard rails placed not less than fifteen (15) inches nor more than twenty (20) inches from rim. When flywheel extends into pit or is within 12 inches of floor, a standard toeboard shall also be provided;
(iii) When the upper rim of flywheel protrudes through a working floor, it shall be entirely enclosed or surrounded by a guardrail and toeboard.
(iv) For flywheels with smooth rims five (5) feet or less in diameter, where the preceding methods cannot be applied, the following may be used: A disk attached to the flywheel in such manner as to cover the spokes of the wheel on the exposed side and present a smooth surface and edge, at the same time providing means for periodic inspection. An open space, not exceeding four (4) inches in width, may be left between the outside edge of the disk and the rim of the wheel if desired, to facilitate turning the wheel over. Where a disk is used, the keys or other dangerous projections not covered by disk shall be cut off or covered. This subdivision does not apply to flywheels with solid web centers.
(v) Adjustable guard to be used for starting engine or for running adjustment may be provided at the flywheel of gas or oil engines. A slot opening for jack bar will be permitted.
(vi) Wherever flywheels are above working areas, guards shall be installed having sufficient strength to hold the weight of the flywheel in the event of a shaft or wheel mounting failure.
(3) Tail rods or extension piston rods. Tail rods or extension piston rods shall be guarded in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section, or by a guardrail on sides and end, with a clearance of not less than fifteen (15) nor more than twenty (20) inches when rod is fully extended.
(i) Each continuous line of shafting shall be secured in position against excessive endwise movement.
(2) Guarding horizontal shafting.
(ii) Inclined and vertical shafts, particularly inclined idler shafts, shall be securely held in position against endwise thrust.
(i) All exposed parts of horizontal shafting seven (7) feet or less from floor or working platform, excepting runways used exclusively for oiling, or running adjustments, shall be protected by a stationary casing enclosing shafting completely or by a trough enclosing sides and top or sides and bottom of shafting as location requires.
(3) Guarding vertical and inclined shafting. Vertical and inclined shafting seven (7) feet or less from floor or working platform, excepting maintenance runways, shall be enclosed with a stationary casing in accordance with requirements of paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section.
(ii) Shafting under bench machines shall be enclosed by a stationary casing, or by a trough at sides and top or sides and bottom, as location requires. The sides of the trough shall come within at least six (6) inches of the underside of table, or if shafting is located near floor within six (6) inches of floor. In every case the sides of trough shall extend at least two (2) inches beyond the shafting or protuberance.
(4) Projecting shaft ends.
(i) Projecting shaft ends shall present a smooth edge and end and shall not project more than one-half the diameter of the shaft unless guarded by nonrotating caps or safety sleeves.
(5) Power-transmission apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements, towers, and rooms used exclusively for power transmission equipment shall be guarded in accordance with this section, except that the requirements for safeguarding belts, pulleys, and shafting need not be complied with when the following requirements are met:
(ii) Unused keyways shall be filled up or covered.
(i) The basement, tower, or room occupied by transmission equipment is locked against unauthorized entrance.
(ii) The vertical clearance in passageways between the floor and power transmission beams, ceiling, or any other objects, is not less than five feet six inches (5 ft. 6 in.).
(iii) The intensity of illumination conforms to the requirements of ANSI A11.1-1965 (R-1970), which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.
(v) The route followed by the oiler is protected in such manner as to prevent accident.
(1) Guarding. Pulleys, any parts of which are seven (7) feet or less from the floor or working platform, shall be guarded in accordance with the standards specified in paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section. Pulleys serving as balance wheels (e.g., punch presses) on which the point of contact between belt and pulley is more than six feet six inches (6 ft. 6 in.) from the floor or platform may be guarded with a disk covering the spokes.
(e) Belt, rope, and chain drives -
(2) Location of pulleys.
(i) Unless the distance to the nearest fixed pulley, clutch, or hanger exceeds the width of the belt used, a guide shall be provided to prevent the belt from leaving the pulley on the side where insufficient clearance exists.
(3) Broken pulleys. Pulleys with cracks, or pieces broken out of rims, shall not be used.
(4) Pulley speeds. Pulleys intended to operate at rim speed in excess of manufacturers normal recommendations shall be specially designed and carefully balanced for the speed at which they are to operate.
(1) Horizontal belts and ropes.
(f) Gears, sprockets, and chains -
(i) Where both runs of horizontal belts are seven (7) feet or less from the floor level, the guard shall extend to at least fifteen (15) inches above the belt or to a standard height except that where both runs of a horizontal belt are 42 inches or less from the floor, the belt shall be fully enclosed in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section.
(2) Overhead horizontal belts.
(ii) In powerplants or power-development rooms, a guardrail may be used in lieu of the guard required by subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.
(i) Overhead horizontal belts, with lower parts seven (7) feet or less from the floor or platform, shall be guarded on sides and bottom in accordance with paragraph (o)(3) of this section.
(3) Vertical and inclined belts.
(ii) Horizontal overhead belts more than seven (7) feet above floor or platform shall be guarded for their entire length under the following conditions:
(a) If located over passageways or work places and traveling 1,800 feet or more per minute.
(iii) Where the upper and lower runs of horizontal belts are so located that passage of persons between them would be possible, the passage shall be either:
(b) If center to center distance between pulleys is ten (10) feet or more.
(c) If belt is eight (8) inches or more in width.
(a) Completely barred by a guardrail or other barrier in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section; or
(iv) Overhead chain and link belt drives are governed by the same rules as overhead horizontal belts and shall be guarded in the same manner as belts.
(b) Where passage is regarded as necessary, there shall be a platform over the lower run guarded on either side by a railing completely filled in with wire mesh or other filler, or by a solid barrier. The upper run shall be so guarded as to prevent contact therewith either by the worker or by objects carried by him. In powerplants only the lower run of the belt need be guarded.
(i) Vertical and inclined belts shall be enclosed by a guard conforming to standards in paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section.
(4) Vertical belts. Vertical belts running over a lower pulley more than seven (7) feet above floor or platform shall be guarded at the bottom in the same manner as horizontal overhead belts, if conditions are as stated in paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) (a) and (c) of this section.
(ii) All guards for inclined belts shall be arranged in such a manner that a minimum clearance of seven (7) feet is maintained between belt and floor at any point outside of guard.
(5) Cone-pulley belts.
(i) The cone belt and pulley shall be equipped with a belt shifter so constructed as to adequately guard the nip point of the belt and pulley. If the frame of the belt shifter does not adequately guard the nip point of the belt and pulley, the nip point shall be further protected by means of a vertical guard placed in front of the pulley and extending at least to the top of the largest step of the cone.
(6) Belt tighteners.
(ii) If the belt is of the endless type or laced with rawhide laces, and a belt shifter is not desired, the belt will be considered guarded if the nip point of the belt and pulley is protected by a nip point guard located in front of the cone extending at least to the top of the largest step of the cone, and formed to show the contour of the cone in order to give the nip point of the belt and pulley the maximum protection.
(iii) If the cone is located less than 3 feet from the floor or working platform, the cone pulley and belt shall be guarded to a height of 3 feet regardless of whether the belt is endless or laced with rawhide.
(i) Suspended counterbalanced tighteners and all parts thereof shall be of substantial construction and securely fastened; the bearings shall be securely capped. Means must be provided to prevent tightener from falling, in case the belt breaks.
(ii) Where suspended counterweights are used and not guarded by location, they shall be so encased as to prevent accident.
(1) Gears. Gears shall be guarded in accordance with one of the following methods:
(g) Guarding friction drives.
(i) By a complete enclosure; or
(2) Hand-operated gears. Paragraph (f)(1) of this section does not apply to hand-operated gears used only to adjust machine parts and which do not continue to move after hand power is removed. However, the guarding of these gears is highly recommended.
(ii) By a standard guard as described in paragraph (o) of this section, at least seven (7) feet high extending six (6) inches above the mesh point of the gears; or
(iii) By a band guard covering the face of gear and having flanges extended inward beyond the root of the teeth on the exposed side or sides. Where any portion of the train of gears guarded by a band guard is less than six (6) feet from the floor a disk guard or a complete enclosure to the height of six (6) feet shall be required.
(3) Sprockets and chains. All sprocket wheels and chains shall be enclosed unless they are more than seven (7) feet above the floor or platform. Where the drive extends over other machine or working areas, protection against falling shall be provided. This subparagraph does not apply to manually operated sprockets.
(4) Openings for oiling. When frequent oiling must be done, openings with hinged or sliding self-closing covers shall be provided. All points not readily accessible shall have oil feed tubes if lubricant is to be added while machinery is in motion.
The driving point of all friction drives when exposed to contact shall be guarded, all arm or spoke friction drives and all web friction drives with holes in the web shall be entirely enclosed, and all projecting belts on friction drives where exposed to contact shall be guarded.
(h) Keys, setscrews, and other projections.
(1) All projecting keys, setscrews, and other projections in revolving parts shall be removed or made flush or guarded by metal cover. This subparagraph does not apply to keys or setscrews within gear or sprocket casings or other enclosures, nor to keys, setscrews, or oilcups in hubs of pulleys less than twenty (20) inches in diameter where they are within the plane of the rim of the pulley.
(i) Collars and couplings -
(2) It is recommended, however, that no projecting setscrews or oilcups be used in any revolving pulley or part of machinery.
(1) Collars. All revolving collars, including split collars, shall be cylindrical, and screws or bolts used in collars shall not project beyond the largest periphery of the collar.
(j) Bearings and facilities for oiling.
(2) Couplings. Shaft couplings shall be so constructed as to present no hazard from bolts, nuts, setscrews, or revolving surfaces. Bolts, nuts, and setscrews will, however, be permitted where they are covered with safety sleeves or where they are used parallel with the shafting and are countersunk or else do not extend beyond the flange of the coupling.
All drip cups and pans shall be securely fastened.
(k) Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys -
(1) Guards. Clutches, cutoff couplings, or clutch pulleys having projecting parts, where such clutches are located seven (7) feet or less above the floor or working platform, shall be enclosed by a stationary guard constructed in accordance with this section. A “U” type guard is permissible.
(l) Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners -
(2) Engine rooms. In engine rooms a guardrail, preferably with toeboard, may be used instead of the guard required by paragraph (k)(1) of this section, provided such a room is occupied only by engine room attendants.
(1) Belt shifters.
(m) Standard guards - general requirements -
(i) Tight and loose pulleys on all new installations made on or after August 31, 1971, shall be equipped with a permanent belt shifter provided with mechanical means to prevent belt from creeping from loose to tight pulley. It is recommended that old installations be changed to conform to this rule.
(2) Belt shippers and shipper poles. The use of belt poles as substitutes for mechanical shifters is not recommended.
(ii) Belt shifter and clutch handles shall be rounded and be located as far as possible from danger of accidental contact, but within easy reach of the operator. Where belt shifters are not directly located over a machine or bench, the handles shall be cut off six feet six inches (6 ft. 6 in.) above floor level.
(3) Belt perches. Where loose pulleys or idlers are not practicable, belt perches in form of brackets, rollers, etc., shall be used to keep idle belts away from the shafts.
(4) Belt fasteners. Belts which of necessity must be shifted by hand and belts within seven (7) feet of the floor or working platform which are not guarded in accordance with this section shall not be fastened with metal in any case, nor with any other fastening which by construction or wear will constitute an accident hazard.
(i) Standard conditions shall be secured by the use of the following materials. Expanded metal, perforated or solid sheet metal, wire mesh on a frame of angle iron, or iron pipe securely fastened to floor or to frame of machine.
(2) Methods of manufacture.
(ii) All metal should be free from burrs and sharp edges.
(i) Expanded metal, sheet or perforated metal, and wire mesh shall be securely fastened to frame.
(o) Approved materials -
(1) Minimum requirements. The materials and dimensions specified in this paragraph shall apply to all guards, except horizontal overhead belts, rope, cable, or chain guards more than seven (7) feet above floor, or platform.
(p) Care of equipment -
(a) All guards shall be rigidly braced every three (3) feet or fractional part of their height to some fixed part of machinery or building structure. Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment additional strength may be necessary.
(i) Wood guards may be used in the woodworking and chemical industries, in industries where the presence of fumes or where manufacturing conditions would cause the rapid deterioration of metal guards; also in construction work and in locations outdoors where extreme cold or extreme heat make metal guards and railings undesirable. In all other industries, wood guards shall not be used.
(3) Guards for horizontal overhead belts.
(i) Guards for horizontal overhead belts shall run the entire length of the belt and follow the line of the pulley to the ceiling or be carried to the nearest wall, thus enclosing the belt effectively. Where belts are so located as to make it impracticable to carry the guard to wall or ceiling, construction of guard shall be such as to enclose completely the top and bottom runs of belt and the face of pulleys.
(4) Guards for horizontal overhead rope and chain drives. Overhead-rope and chain-drive guard construction shall conform to the rules for overhead-belt guard.
(iii) Suitable reinforcement shall be provided for the ceiling rafters or overhead floor beams, where such is necessary, to sustain safely the weight and stress likely to be imposed by the guard. The interior surface of all guards, by which is meant the surface of the guard with which a belt will come in contact, shall be smooth and free from all projections of any character, except where construction demands it; protruding shallow roundhead rivets may be used. Overhead belt guards shall be at least one-quarter wider than belt which they protect, except that this clearance need not in any case exceed six (6) inches on each side. Overhead rope drive and block and roller-chain-drive guards shall be not less than six (6) inches wider than the drive on each side. In overhead silent chain-drive guards where the chain is held from lateral displacement on the sprockets, the side clearances required on drives of twenty (20) inch centers or under shall be not less than one-fourth inch from the nearest moving chain part, and on drives of over twenty (20) inch centers a minimum of one-half inch from the nearest moving chain part.
(5) Guardrails and toeboards.
(i) Guardrail shall be forty-two (42) inches in height, with midrail between top rail and floor.
(ii) Posts shall be not more than eight (8) feet apart; they are to be permanent and substantial, smooth, and free from protruding nails, bolts, and splinters. If made of pipe, the post shall be one and one-fourth (1 1/4) inches inside diameter, or larger. If made of metal shapes or bars, their section shall be equal in strength to that of one and one-half (1 1/2) by one and one-half (1 1/2) by three-sixteenths ( 3/16) inch angle iron. If made of wood, the posts shall be two by four (2 × 4) inches or larger. The upper rail shall be two by four (2 × 4) inches, or two one by four (1 × 4) strips, one at the top and one at the side of posts. The midrail may be one by four (1 × 4) inches or more. Where panels are fitted with expanded metal or wire mesh the middle rails may be omitted. Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment, additional strength may be necessary.
(iii) Toeboards shall be four (4) inches or more in height, of wood, metal, or of metal grill not exceeding one (1) inch mesh.
(1) General. All power-transmission equipment shall be inspected at intervals not exceeding 60 days and be kept in good working condition at all times.
(i) Shafting shall be kept in alignment, free from rust and excess oil or grease.
(3) Bearings. Bearings shall be kept in alignment and properly adjusted.
(ii) Where explosives, explosive dusts, flammable vapors or flammable liquids exist, the hazard of static sparks from shafting shall be carefully considered.
(4) Hangers. Hangers shall be inspected to make certain that all supporting bolts and screws are tight and that supports of hanger boxes are adjusted properly.
(i) Pulleys shall be kept in proper alignment to prevent belts from running off.
(6)Care of belts.
(ii) Inspection shall be made of belts, lacings, and fasteners and such equipment kept in good repair.
(7) Lubrication. The regular oilers shall wear tight-fitting clothing. Machinery shall be oiled when not in motion, wherever possible.
The welding process, the length of exposure, and the effectiveness of fume extraction systems all play a role in how severe health and safety risks are in a work environment. It's important to understand welding safety and remain current on up-to-date practices.
LII/ 29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus
OSHA Regulations 1910 Subpart O - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus